VINCI Project: IVI Tutorial
This tutorial can be read from start to finish. Alternatively,
click on one of the following headings to select a particular
Before we begin, please note the following
- if we show the symbol <x>, you should press and release
the x key on the keyboard;
- if we show the symbol <Esc>, you should press and release
the key named Esc;
- if we show the symbol <Control x>, you should
you to hold down a key named Control or Ctrl and type
- if you see instructions to type <Return> and
there is no Return key on your keyboard, then look for that
key's equivalent (typically, this is a key named Enter
or a key with a hooked
[ Index ]
IVI is a general purpose full-screen editor which allows the user to
create, view, modify, save and retrieve various objects, notably,
Once you have logged on and are in your working directory, call the
editor from the prompt or command line by typing
ivi and pressing <Return>.
A display appears, filling the window (or filling the screen if you are not
using a window system) as shown miniaturized below:
Core: 1 ( 1, 1) Lines: 1 View: TEXT
In a window environment, a solid line borders the window.
The screen is divided into zones:
- status zone
- This includes the top two lines.
The top line contains the current corefile number and (in
brackets) current row and column numbers. The information appearing
on the right includes the number of lines in the
current file and the current view mode
(TEXT view). A file name may appear in the centre.
The second line displays the positions of tabstops and margins.
- text zone
- This is the large blank area
where you will type text and see output of the generator.
- command zone
- This includes the bottom two lines.
The bottom line is the command line. `Expecting Command' prompts the
user for a command.
The next-to-bottom line is the message line where
various system messages will appear.
- flag zone
- This comprises the two leftmost columns which may
contain `flags' which apply to the lines which they precede.
The two most important `flags' are + which indicates that the
text line extends beyond the right edge of the screen; and -
which indicates that there is text before the left edge of the screen.
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The editor has two principal modes:
- Typing mode
- for full-screen manipulation of text
- Command mode
- for entering various commands.
Initially, IVI is in command mode.
To change from command mode to typing mode, press
that the cursor moves from the command line to inside the text
zone. The prompt `Expecting
Typing' appears on the command line.
Practice typing a few lines of text, by using the keyboard as a
typewriter. As you type, a line of text will appear on
To change back to command mode, press
Notice that the cursor moves to the command line following the prompt,
`Expecting Command'. This indicates that the editor is in command
mode and it is prompting the user to input a command.
Change back to typing mode once more. Notice that the cursor returns
to the space where it was previously.
Practice changing from typing mode to command mode, and back to
typing mode until you feel comfortable with the two.
[ Index ]
Some basic editing keystrokes which are used frequently are described
below. For each of these, read the description which follows
the keystroke name. Then practice using the keystroke to
learn and review its operation in typing mode.
Cursor movement keystrokes enable
you to position the cursor in the text at locations where text is to
be entered or deleted.
Cursor movement keys include:
- This moves the cursor to the left
margin of the next line.
- Arrow keys
- Each moves the cursor one space in a specific
direction, either up, down, left or right.
Notice that if you try to move the cursor beyond the top, bottom and right
boundaries of the
text zone, the whole text moves bodily the opposite way. (i.e. if you
move the cursor to the bottom, the text scrolls up.)
Overtype and Insert Modes
IVI has two modes for inserting characters into an already
existing text: overwrite mode and insert mode.
- Overtype Mode
- This allows you to replace one character with
another. To practice this, type the word "finger". Then
move the cursor back under the letter "f" and type the letter "l".
Notice that the character which was present
initially, is replaced by the new letter.
- Insert Mode
- This allows characters to be inserted, one
character at a time, left of the insert point. To practice this,
begin by typing the word "bean".
Move the cursor under the "a". Type <Control w> to change
to insert mode.
Notice the `Expecting Insert' prompt which occurs on the command line.
Now, type "g". The "g" will be inserted left of the "a" and the
word will read "began".
To change back to Overtype mode, press <Control w> again.
Note the `Expecting Text' prompt which occurs on the command line.
You can change back and forth from insert to overtype mode anytime
you are in Text mode.
IVI has a number of keystrokes which enable you to delete characters,
words, or lines. One is the delete key (<Del>)
which allows you to delete characters,
one at a time.
(Depending on the version of IVI you are using, this key will either
be the <Delete> or the <Backspace> key.)
The operation works the same whether in typing mode
or in insert mode. The character which is deleted depends
upon the cursor position, as the following examples illustrate:
- Delete character under cursor.
- Type "trees". Position the
cursor under the "r" and press
removes the "r" and the rest of the word moves left to fill
- Delete from end of line.
- On a blank line, type "the cats" and position the
cursor immediately after the "s". Press
removes the "s" to its left.
- Delete empty line.
- Type "The cat is blue". Press
<Return> twice to move down two lines.
Type "The dog is red". Move
the cursor to the beginning of the empty line between the two
<Del>. The empty line will disappear.
Insert new line (<Control f>)
This keystroke inserts new (blank) lines. To
practice this, type "The mouse is in the house" on one line
and "The rat is in the garage" on the next. Position the
cursor anywhere on the first line you just typed and press
<Control f>. A new blank line will appear.
Entering non-English characters
IVI allows provides a number of keystrokes to enable you to enter
non-English characters. These include:
- Type <Esc> <A>
- Type <Esc> <Esc> <a>
- Type <Esc> <e>
- Type <Esc> <E>
- Type <Esc> <Esc> <e>
- Type <Esc> <Esc> <i>
- Type <Esc> <Esc> <o>
- Type <Esc> <U>
- Type <Esc> <Esc> <u>
- Type <Esc> <c>
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As shown earlier in the tutorial, if IVI is in command
mode, the cursor is located at the bottom of the screen
after the prompt, `Expecting Command'. The prompt indicates
the editor is in command mode and the user may input a
command. (Remember, IVI is placed in command mode by the key sequence
IVI commands are typed by entering the first two letters of the
command name in either
upper or lower case. If the command is legal, the editor will
fill out the entire name of the command and wait for the user
to supply any necessary parameters (e.g. a filename).
If the command is not legal, the error message
Invalid Command Request
will appear on the message line. Press <Del> to remove
the error message and try again. Once the full command is entered,
press <Return> to obey it.
Initially, anything you type in Text mode is present in the
computer's memory, but it is not saved on disk. If you were
to turn off the system or logout, everything you typed would be lost.
IVI provides commands which allow you to save the contents of
your work to disk and retrieve them later. In the next few
paragraphs, we will examine some basic file commands.
manual, we will usually present commands in the form FEtch,
where FE are the letters which must be typed, and the remaining
letters show the full name.)
First, an overview of the commands we will look at.
- The SAve command places a copy of the file in the
computer's memory into a
new disk file under a name you specify.
- The OVerwrite command places a copy of the file in the
computer's memory into an
existing disk file under a name you specify, replacing whatever was there.
- The FEtch command copies the contents of an
existing disk file into your computer's memory and
shows the contents of the file on your screen.
The contents of the file replace the file which was
previously in memory.
- The APpend command copies the contents of an
existing disk file into your computer's memory. However,
unlike FEtch, the new material is added to the end of
any existing file.
- The INsert command copies the contents of an
existing disk file into your computer's memory.
The new material is inserted into the computer's memory
immediately following the line with the cursor on it.
- Removes the contents of the file in your computer's memory. Any
material not previously SAved or OVerwritten will be lost.
- IVI actually provides up to nine separate areas in
the computer's memory for
editing files. Each is called a corefile. The COre command
allows you to switch from one corefile to another.
Practising File Commands
To begin, make sure that some text has been typed in text mode
and appears on the screen. Then go to command mode (<Control c>).
To save your work to a disk file named "fred", type:
and press <Return>.
The file has now been saved to disk.
Notice that your text remains in the text zone, however. To
see what is going on here, you must remove
the contents from memory and recall them from disk.
To remove contents from memory, type
and press <Return>. The screen will clear. Now, to recall
the contents of the file from disk, type
and press <Return>. The contents should reappear on the screen.
Now, return to text mode and type a few more lines of text. Then
return to command mode and type
SA fred <Return>
again. Note the error message which appears on the message line:
File already exists (or no write permission)
IVI has detected an existing copy of a file called "fred" and
refuses to let you replace it with another
file of the same name. What to do? To tell IVI that you want
to replace the old version of "fred" on disk with a newer
and press <Return>. IVI will then overwrite the old version
of the file with a newer one. To confirm that this is so, type
and press <Return>. The screen should clear and the more recent
version should reappear.
Now let's try appending a file to work on the screen. To accomplish
this, let us begin by changing corefiles. By default, IVI places
you in corefile 1 (note the Core: 1 on the upper left hand corner
of the screen). Let us now switch to Core 2. Type
and press <Return>. Note that the upper left hand corner of
the screen now reads Core: 2. Go into text mode and type some
text. Then return to command mode. Type
and press <Return>. The contents of the file
you saved as "fred" should appear at the end of what you have
Now let's try inserting a file at the cursor position. While still
in Core 2, move the cursor after the third line of the file.
Return to command mode and type
and press <Return>. The contents of the file
you saved as "fred" should appear just after the third line.
You have now practiced the basic commands listed earlier. There are many
others described in the IVI Reference Manual
which you may want to explore as well. Alternatively, you might consult
the VINCI Documentation, which will show how to
generate words and utterances.
Meanwhile, as a last item, we will show you how to leave IVI.
[ Index ]
To turn off the editor, type <Control c> GO. IVI will
complete the command to GOODBYE. Pressing <Return>
will confirm that you want to quit.
At this point, if IVI detects that you have an unsaved corefile, it will place
an error message on the message line:
WARNING: corefile 1 not saved. (del) aborts.
You now have the option of either pressing
to ignore the warning, in which case the contents of the corefile
will be lost, or pressing
<Del> to cancel the command.
In the second case, you should then SAve the corefile.
The warning will be repeated for each corefile that has not been
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Last revision: March 7, 1996. In case of errors, problems or questions,
contact Michael Levison
or Greg Lessard.