The Attributes

Some basic features covered in the Overview, along with a few simple facts:

The language describer specifies the attributes with a sequence of lists in the form:

    Number(sing, plur)
    Person (first, second, third)
    Nountrait(human, animate, edible, ...)
    Function(subj, objd, obji)

each type name being followed by a parenthesized list of its values. These are gathered in an attributes file. For reasons lost to antiquity, the file must be terminated with the symbol %. This will be rectified in due course.

The identifiers, both types and values, must be distinct.

In the present implementation, and in the foreseeable future, the number of types and the number of values in any one type is limited to 254. This, however, is not really restrictive; if a type needs more values, one may define two separate types and use them as a compound pair, giving about 64,000 combinations.

Compounding and Deconstruction

The following, slightly modified from an earlier example, shows a Number attribute being chosen, and passed to subject and verb to ensure agreement in number between them:

    ROOT = choose No: Number;
           NP[No]  V[vtdi, third, No, pres]  NP %

    NP   = inherit Nu: Number;
           DET[Nu]  N[Nu] %

Suppose we try to adapt this to ensure semantic agreement between subject and verb, and between verb and object, so that, for example, monkeys may eat bananas, but bananas may not eat monkeys. By analogy, we attempt:

    ROOT = choose No: Number, Nt1, Nt2: Nountrait;
           NP[No, Nt1]  V[vtdi, third, No, pres, Nt1, Nt2]  NP[Nt2] %

    NP   = inherit Nu: Number, Nt: Nountrait;
           DET[Nu]  N[Nu, Nt] %

But here we encounter a snag. The attribute list of the verb contains two values of type Nountrait, say animate and edible, but VINCI has no way of distinguishing one from the other, no way of knowing which belongs to the subject, which to the object.

VINCI solves this problem by way of compounding. Two attribute values, say, animate and subj, may be compounded using the dot-operator to form the compound attribute animate.subj. Replacing the V node in the above context-free rule by:

    V[vtdi, third, No, pres, Nt1.subj, Nt2.objd]

then provides the necessary distinction. The lexicon entry for a verb like "eat" must contain in its attributes field compound attributes such as animate.subj and edible.objd to ensure appropriate lexical selection.

Compound attributes may contain as many components as the language describer wants. The order matters: plur.masc is not the same as masc.plur. The order in which the compound was put together does not: first.(masc.plur) is the same as (first.masc).plur. We write both of these as first.masc.plur without parentheses, which would not, in fact, be recognized by VINCI.

In mathematical terms, the dot-operator is associative but not commutative.

In time, we will come upon many uses for compound attributes, but will not dwell on them here.

By the way, when searching an attribute list containing compound attributes, we need a generalized form of pattern to match against the elements in the list. This is the compound attribute pattern, which looks like a compound attribute but which may contain types as well as values. As in the uncompounded attribute case, the types simply act as wildcards which match any values of that type; for example, Nountrait.subj matches human.subj, animate.subj, edible.subj, ...

If a child node, or indeed any other part of a VINCI process, is passed a compound attribute, it may need to break it apart to obtain subsections: individual simple attributes or shorter compounds. This operation is called deconstruction.

Deconstruction may be carried out by an inherit clause (see Syntax), or by any other process which picks up a compound attribute from a list intending to pass it on. (These are de facto inheritances.) Some of the components of the compound attribute pattern used to search for the required attribute are preceded by slash symbols, /, which replace the dot-operators (except on the first component, where there is no dot). For example, we may write: Nountrait/subj or /Gender.Number. In each case, VINCI searches for a compound attribute matching the whole pattern, and then discards components matching the ones preceded by the deconstruction slash. So the former example gives us the Nountrait value from, say, edible.subj, while the latter gives us plur from masc.plur.

Partial Ordering

The set of values of an attribute type may form a partial ordering. This is a technically complex matter, and is not essential for many applications. In the interests of providing a useful Manual in the near future, it will be delayed both in time and positioning within these pages.


By accident or design, we often shorten commonly used compound nouns. Thus: